Precis Writing – Examples – Series 3
Check previous 3 examples here : Precis Writing – Examples – Series 2
WBCS Mains 2000 – Precis Writing Solution
In 1897, at the age of forty, Ross made one of the greatest of medical discoveries. He proved that malaria was transmitted by mosquitoes, showed how the transmission occurred, and identified the particular kind of mosquito which was responsible. The discovery not only brought one of the most harmful diseases withtin control, but also helped to show how other insect-borne diseases, such as yellow-fever, sleeping sickness, typhus and plague might be prevented. When Ross began his research, it was not even certain that mosquitoes had anything to do with malaria ; no one knew whether it was transmitted through mosquito bites, or by the drinking of water containing infected larvae of mosquitoes. Manson inclined to the latter theory, and at first Ross followed him. But Ross accumulated various facts which seemed to be against it. He noticed that though Secunderabad was surrounded by marshes, there was little malaria. He thought that this might be due to the wind, for Secunderabad was a windy place, and it was known that mosquitoes did not thrive in windy weather. These and other observations turned him away from Manson’s drinking-water theory, and
directed his attention more to transmission by the flying and biting mosquito. He concentrated on trying to discover whether this mode of transmission is, indeed, the one which actually occurs.
Title : Discovery of the mode of transmission of Malaria
In 1897, Ross discovered the mode of transmission of malaria by a particular kind of mosquito. This discovery helped in controlling not only malaria but also other insect-borne diseases. At first Ross experimented with Manson’s theory of malaria transmission through drinking larvae-infected contaminated water. But he found that a marshy place like Secunderabad was almost free from malaria. This made him abandon Manson’s
drinking-water theory and concentrate on transmission by the flying and biting mosquito.
[ Also Check : Precis Writing – Examples – Series 1 ]
WBCS Mains 2001 – Precis Writing Solution
Economic welfare is only one part of human welfare. It is very possible for asymmetrical societies to look after minorities very well. If you look at a document like Arthasastra of Kautilya, it is quite clear that the obligation of the Emperor is to look after the economic welfare of the entire population, but it was not an egalitarian society in terms of political power, in fact, very far from it. A society in which a rigidly dominant group looks after the economic well-being of the non-dominant group, ‘from above’, would not be a good society, as the dominated are denied the right to enjoy political influence, civil freedom and participate in the decisions of the state and society. The main argument against Hindu rule is that this is not a Hindu country, and that Muslims, Buddhists, Christians and others have as much right to take part in the polity of India, in the society of India, as Hindus do. In fact, I do not accept the term ‘majoritarian’ which you used. The majority of Indians may be Hindu, but the majority of Indians are not intolerant Hindus or intolerant Muslims. I would not accept the right of Hindu sectarians to be described as majoritarian. They are minoritarians. The majoritarians in India are those who regard religious tolerance to be very central, no matter, whether they are themselves Hindus or Muslims. The main argument against asymmetry of power in religious and social matters is the barbarity of arrangement itself, not its implications in terms of economic welfare.
Title : Criteria for a civilised society
In a multi-religious society, the economic interest of minorities can be protected by the majority community. But minorities are often deprived of socio-political rights by the dominant majority, and, as such, it cannot be called a just society. The argument for Hindu rule is untenable because India is not a Hindu country and minorities have equal rights as Hindus. The majority of Indians firmly believe in religious tolerance and Hindu fundamentalists, in fact, are in a minority. Discrimination against minorities in socio-political affairs is a monostrous arrangement, notwithstanding their economic well-being.
[ Also Check – Bengali to English Translation – Series 4 ( PDF ) ]
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